Strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia; logical consequence realization Good Governance
Strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia; logical consequence realization Good Governance
By: Rudi Salam Sinaga
The discourse on civil society was crowded much talked about in the mid 90s during the Suharto regime’s power peaked kejayaanya, at that moment the discussion of civil society are particularly relevant because it is associated with a system of government that is authoritarian. According Kutut Suwondo (Civil Society in Local Aras; Development of Relations Between the People and the State in rural Java, 2004), where at that very moment the power of the state is too large when compared with the power of the people. Civil society then discussed in various seminars to the interpretation of it emerged, according to the needs and interests that give interpretations.
Suppose the various cases concerning the oppression of the people which is often done by the authorities is a reality that often we see and hear in every news conference. Whether through electronic media and print media. Call it an example of oppression that occurred in Indonesia when the new order in power namely the existence of repression against people’s rights to land taken by pemrintah the grounds of development. Or is the reality of restraint and silencing freedom of the press with the banning of some mass media by the government as well as restrictions on freedom of expression in the express publicly.
Forms of oppression as a nationwide state authorities against the people as mentioned above occurs not only in Indonesia but the country in several countries in the world is assumed to berkepemimpinan authoritarian government such as, North Korea, Malaysia, Miyanmar and so forth. form of the approach used by authoritarian rulers in several countries in implementing the repressive action often argue for the sake of national security then it becomes repressive approach should be to the kedepankan.
This above is a portrait of this form of governance that is not good if the lean on what you believe in the concept of democracy in the form of good governance that became known as Good Governence term.
The term “governance” is already known in the literature of administration and political science nearly 120 years, since Woodrow Wilson, who later became President of the United States to 27, introduces the study area of approximately 125 years ago. But during that governance is only used in political literature in the narrow sense. In the article Prof.. Dr. Sofian Effendi (Build Good Governence: Our Common Task, 2009) explains that the discourse of “governance” has emerged about 15 years, especially after the various international financial institutions define “good governance” as the main requirements for each program for their help. By theorists and practitioners of the Indonesian state administration, the term “good governance” has been translated in different terms, for example, the mandate of governance (Bintoro Tjokroamidjojo), good governance (UNDP), the management of good governance and responsible (LAN), and some are interpreted narrowly as the government is clean (clean government.)
Deeper Prof.Dr. Sofian Effendi explained in the “governance” implies a nation how to distribute power and manage the resources and the various problems faced by society. In other words, the elements contained in the concept of democratic governance, equitable, transparent, rule of law, participation and partnership. Perhaps the definitions are formulated IIAS is the most appropriate to capture the meaning is the process whereby the various elements in society to raise the power and authority, and influence and ratify policies and decisions concerning public life, as well as economic and social development.
Pergesran pattern of Indonesia’s political configuration of the authoritarian era to democracy that in the start after the fall of the regime of President Suharto, then the contents of the reform agenda to strengthen democracy as a concept relevant to be applied and developed in Indonesia. Pergesran political configuration pattern which creates a huge wave of democracy in Indonesia, making Indonesia busy with re-arrange things what is considered consistent with the spirit of democracy, political system changes, the functions of state institutions and other sebaginya. The change in structure is also balanced with the desire of the people to obtain decent as the people’s rights against the state with a variety of practical understanding of democracy as well as contextual and foreign influences that want to “participate” in Indonesia.
Writing with the title “Strengthening of Civil Society in Indonesia; logical consequence realization of good governance” was made on the grounds that Indonesia is a country that is running in Universal peroses democracy, through this paper the author wants to share your thoughts in the filling process of democratization is through thinking the importance of strengthening civil society in Indonesia as a logical consequence of the realization of good governance.
Departure from the introduction above, can be formulated a problem which will be reviewed in the discussion in this paper. As for the problem is how to efforts to strengthen civil society in Indonesia as a logical consequence of the realization of good governance.
The discourse of civil society is a concept derived from political upheaval and the history of western Europe are undergoing a process of transformation from a feudal to a life pattern of the life of capitalist industrial society. If you find the roots of its history from the beginning, the development of civil society discourse can be traced from start Cicerrro to Antonio Gramsci, even according to Dawam Rahardjo, civil society discourse has been raised at the time of Aristotle. Aristotle was followed by Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) by the term civilies societies, that is a community that dominates the other communities. Terms put forward by Cicero is more emphasis on the concept of city-state (city-state), namely to describe the kingdom, the city and other corporate form, as an organized entity.
1767, the discourse of civil society was developed by Adam Ferguson by taking socio-cultural context and politics of Scotland. Ferguson emphasized civil society in an ethical vision in public life.
This understanding is used to anticipate the social changes caused by the industrial revolution and the emergence of capitalism as well as striking differences between the public and individuals. With this concept, Ferguson hopes that the public has the spirit to block the re-emergence of despotism, as in civil society of social solidarity that emerged and were inspired by moral sentiment and attitude of mutual love and trust between citizens naturally. 1792, civil society discourse appears to have a different emphasis with the previous, this concept is raised by Thomas Paine (1737-1803) who used the term civil society as groups of people who have a position diametrically with the state. Even regarded by them as anti-thesis of the country. Thus, the state should be limited to a nicety, and he is the embodiment of the delegation of power granted by the society for the creation of public welfare.
The transformation from a feudal society into a modern western society, who was better known by the term civil society. In the tradition of Europe around the middle of XVIII century, the notion of civil society are considered equal to understanding the state (state), ie one group / force that dominates all other community groups. But at the end of the XVIII century, this terminology is experiencing a shift in meaning. State and civil society was understood as two distinct entities, in line with the process of forming social and political structural changes in Europe as the enlightenment and modernization in the face of worldly matters. In defines the term civil society is highly dependent on socio-cultural conditions of a nation
In the Islamic perspective, give meaning to civil society as civil society, while a group of scientists interpret as civil society or civic society, the controversy also emerged among civil society groups that glorify as a way out of an unjust political system. The collapse of the authoritarian Suharto regime, causing the discourse of civil society seemed to lose the base of departure for discussion again, but if civil society is only used as a tool of political analysis, the discourse has become very relevant to talk about.
Diverse interpretations of civil society discourse continues to grow dimisalkan Adi Suryadi Culla (Civil Society; Thought, theory, and its relevance to the ideals of reformsi, 1999) describes civil society if dipadanankan into the Indonesian padananya said it will be found as civil society civil society, or community citizenship, civil society, the community of civilized, or civilized society. in the Indonesian term “society” is defined by “society”, civil society there is also a mean to civilized society (civilized society), his opponent is the ‘wild people’ (savage society). Approaching understanding civilized society, other translations are also often used is the civil society. Compared to other term of this istialah the most popular and much loved in Indonesia. Madani refers to the word ‘madina’ a city in the Arab region, where the Shari’a of Islam under the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad in the past have built a high civilization. According Nurcholis Madjid, the word ‘madina’ comes from the Arabic of “Madaniyah” meaning of civilization because it is associated civil society “civilized society.
Istialah civil society is also sometimes translated as vividly as civil society. Whatever it is, Sunyoto Usman in a paper in the seminar (Building Partnerships between Government and Civil Society to Achieve Good Governance, 2001), confirms that must be underlined is the civil society is an important concept, namely the presence and desire to build community tuntutuan able to create the maximum, capable of absorbing democratic values in a concrete, and hope for the creation of a democratic political system and government from time to time. Because, one of the important ideas inherent in the concept of civil society is the desire to improve the quality of the relationship between society and social institutions are in: public sector (government and political parties), the private sector (business) and the voluntary sector (non-governmental organizations, organizations religious and professional groups).
The relation of civil society and good governance is a matter that is symmetrical between the two, because the two concepts above are born from the concept of Democracy, Democracy upholds the values of justice, freedom, individual and group rights, democracy further requires that the state in conducting activities to be open to the public. This is a form of demand in developing Good Governence in a democracy. This means that countries in the implementation of government must be open so that the public / civil society can be easy to access information related to the organization of the government.
The reality of democracy in Indonesia, change the pattern of centralized authority into the pattern of centralized power in order to attain the level of Good Governence area dibidani by law No. 22 of 1999 was later clarified by the law No. 32 of 2004 on regional government, was not able to answer nature Good Governance at local level and national level.
Problems then arise in the decentralization that has similarities to the days of centralized problematic. Local forces to replace the position of the power of the central power, although the local force has hegemony of government at the local level, was not able to guarantee the satisfaction of local communities in meeting their demands toward the achievement of the rights and clean government, transparent or in terms of good governance. The essence of the regional autonomy law by summarizing the idea of regional autonomy expert “M. Ryaas Rashid “in M. Mas’ud Said (Bureaucracy In bureaucratic State, 2007) about the changing nature of the practice of centralized governance to decentralized governance is that local governance is much more independent in choosing their leaders, to advance their interests, develop their institutions, the mobilizing of support from community- their own community.
In the current locale tinggatan still can be found organizing the government that are closed to information governance. Symptoms such as these in the draw by Dzuriyatun Toyibah, et al (Capture the Public Budget: The Long Road Democratization Budgeting, 2008) in management development planning model as mandated Act No.25 of 2004 concerning National Development Planning system enables greater community involvement, Pengakomodasian community participation is assumed for planning which would have been prepared in accordance with the needs of the community. Unfortunately, the planning process is masi not yet integrated with the budgeting process. Participatory planning process that is relatively reduced by the portrait of budget that is not aspirational. Indications of ketidaknyambungan between planning and budgeting processes can be evidenced from the loss of priority proposals result in musrenbang musrenbangdes signing at the next level.
Portrait of the above of course is contrary to democratic principles in realizing the Good Governence. Masarakat civil or civil society have the right to information and participation tdalam of governance in local and national level because the public is the fuel of the movement of nation-building and implementation of development charges also come from public money. Government as owner of the bureaucracy would have to work in the public interest and, it is similar when it comes in the view of “Hegelian Bureaucracy” who believe that the bureaucracy as an institutional bridge between civil society and state. The lack singkronan between state / government administrators and civil society / civil society will lead to the development of walking not on properly, either on the priority issues to the issue of quality needs and good use of the budget. to achieve good governance, the pillars of the buffer required for the achievement of the objectives of good governance namely: government (the state), civil society (civilized society, civil society, civil society), and market or business world. Civil society inevitably have to endure in order to oversee the implementation of good governance it is requested or not, this is important because it involves the area of public life. If the organizers of the government can not reflect the attitude of accommodating and communicative, the ideas presented by Mansour Fakih (Civil Society For Social Transformation; upheaval Ideology of NGOs, 2004) that changes must be captured, can not wait passively.
Civil Society in its position in the state are two different sides in the role and duties, the role of the state as government administrators responsible for protecting and mensejahterahkan people. While civil society acts as a controller of a country’s performance which will provide in-put to the state of the problem faced by the people. In reaching a change towards the direction of improvement, requested or not by the government, then suda become imperative for civil society to move towards meaningful change for the public interest, government, and the state.
Strengthening civil society in the stream of democracy must realize the absolute necessity for the implementation of government that “strong” and “clean”, then the question can be raised is why the civil society in Indonesia is weak and how efforts to strengthen civil society in Indoonesia,? It said weak civil society in Indonesia, marked by widespread objections to the policy of the state / government by the people and the refusal did not get a meaningful response from the state / government. In determining the policy of the government bureaucracy peroses still feel that the citizens of the community as an “object” of the policy, such a narrow view would make the government “allergic” to the proposals of the citizenry in policy determination. And pradigma budget transparency to the public is still considered a state secret by the government bureaucracy. Then how to strengthen civil society in Indonesia.? How that can be kedepankan in strengthening civil society in Indonesia are:
1. Improve understanding of education among civil society with information and educational exchange among civil society through studies study groups, non-governmental organizations, associations and so forth, all of which was to control the administration of a “clean” and well targeted. So the state / government will not arbitrarily in making policy.
2. Changing pradigma state / government bureaucracy as a waitress and guidance as to the subjects and not as a ruler to his people.
3. The desire of state / government to provide the widest space for civil society in control, information access and mensertakan civil society participation in formulating policy
Culla Adi Suryadi, 1999, Civil Society, Thought, theory, and its relevance to the ideals of reformsi.Jakarta; King Grafindo Persada.
Said M. Mas’ ud, 2007, Bureaucracy in the bureaucratic state. Malang: UPT Publishing University of Malang.
Suwondo Kutut, 2003, Civil Society in Local Aras; Development of Relations Between the People and the State in rural Java, Yogyakarta, East: Reader Percik.
Toyibah Dzuriyatun, et al, 2008, Seize the Public Budget; Long Road Budgeting Democratization, London: PP Lakpesdam NU.
Articles / Literature Other:
Prof. articles. Dr. Sofian Effendi, rector of Gadjah Mada University “Building Good Governence: Our Common Tasks.” Download in http://sofian.staff.ugm.ac.id/artikel/membangun-good-governance.pdf on August 25, 2009 at 23:17 Wit
Usman Sunyoto paper at the seminar “Building Partnerships between Government and Civil Society to Achieve Good Governance”, organized by the National Development Planning Agency, Jakarta, October 9, 2001.